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Elevated MIF identified by multiple cytokine analyses facilitates macrophage M2 polarization contributing to postoperative recurrence in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

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S. Xie - Z. Tong - J. Zhang - C. Yang - W. Jiang - H. Zhang

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by tissue heterogeneity and high postoperative recurrence risk. This study aims to employ cytokine analyses to identify serum biomarkers associated with postoperative CRSwNP recurrence and elucidate underlying recurrent mechanisms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on CRSwNP patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Serum and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for multiple cytokines. Participants were followed for 3 years and categorized into recurrent and non-recurrent groups. Cytokine profiles were compared, and potential markers for recurrence were further assessed. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in macrophages was modulated, and their polarization and cytokine secretion were assessed. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort (21 recurrent and 40 non-recurrent patients), circulating cytokine profiles differed significantly, with 8 cytokines showing differential expression between the two groups. Among them, serum eotaxin, MIF, RANTES, and TRAIL exhibited promise in predicting recurrence. In the validation cohort (24 recurrent and 44 non-recurrent patients), serum eotaxin, MIF, and TRAIL levels were higher in recurrent cases. Tissue MIF was elevated in recurrent cases and had a strong predictive value for recurrence. Moreover, tissue MIF was co-expressed with CD206 in recurrent cases. Mechanistically, MIF overexpression promoted macrophage M2 polarization and TGF-β1, CCL-24, and MIF secretion, and MIF recombinant protein facilitated M2 polarization, and TGF-β1 and CCL-24 production, contributing to CRSwNP recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Serum-specific cytokine signatures were associated with postoperative recurrence risk in CRSwNP. Elevated MIF enhanced macrophage M2 polarization and cytokine secretion, contributing to the recurrent mechanisms of CRSwNP.

Rhinology 0-0: 0-0, 0000

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