Volume: 61 - Issue: 2
First page: 144 - Last page: 152
M. Haas - M. Lucic - F. Pichler - F.F. Brkic - D. Riss - C.A. Mueller - D.T. Liu
Background: Climate change has been associated with an increase in extreme weather conditions. The aim of this study was to identify environmental factors and the effect of extreme weather events (95th percentile) on the risk for epistaxis-related emergency room visits (EV).
Methods: A total of 2179 epistaxis-related EVs were identified between 2015 and 2018. A distributed lag non-linear model was fitted to investigate the relationship between extreme weather conditions and the total number of epistaxis-related EVs per day. Cumulative relative risk (cRR) is defined as the cumulated daily risk of EV for epistaxis within a stated period after an extreme weather condition compared to the risk of EV at the median value of that weather condition.
Results: At a mean daily temperature of 27°C (P95), cRR for epistaxis-related EV was 2.00. At a relative humidity of 39% (P5), cRR was highest on day 3 at 1.59, while extremely high humidity (92%, P99) led to a decreased cRR of 0.7 on day 1. Intense precipitation of 24mm (P99) reduced the cRR on day 3 to 0.38. For prolonged extreme conditions over three days, extremely low wind speed, as well as both high and low atmospheric pressure events, diminished cRR.
Conclusions: Extreme temperatures, relative humidity, and precipitation, as well as extended periods of extreme wind speeds and atmospheric pressure, significantly impact cRR for epistaxis-related EVs.
Rhinology 61-2: 144-152, 2023
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