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Gustatory dysfunction in patients with olfactory dysfunction and the associated factors

Volume: 60 - Issue: 3

First page: 200 - Last page: 206

M.-S. Rha - H.-J. Cho - J.-H. Yoon - S.J. Moon - C.-H. Kim

Background: Little is known about the occurrence of gustatory dysfunction (GD) in relation to different aetiologies of olfactory dysfunction (OD) as assessed by psychophysical chemosensory tests. The aim of this study was to analyse gustatory function in patients with OD and to investigate clinical factors associated with GD.
Methods: A total of 742 individuals who underwent both olfactory and gustatory function tests at a tertiary medical centre from November 2019 to March 2021 were retrospectively enrolled. Olfactory and gustatory function were assessed by the YSK olfactory and gustatory function tests, respectively. Patients with OD were classified into four groups according to the aetiology: sinonasal disease, post-infection OD (PIOD), post-traumatic OD (PTOD), and others. Secondary outcomes included age, sex, smoking history, and alcohol history.
Results: Among the 488 patients with OD, 93 (19.1%) showed GD and 395 (80.9%) had normal gustatory function. Only 25 (9.8%) among 254 individuals with normosmia showed GD. Analyses of these frequencies revealed a significant association between OD and GD. In addition, the taste score was significantly lower in patients with OD than individuals with normosmia. The frequency of GD was significantly higher in patients with PTOD (53.6%) than in those with OD of other aetiologies (sinonasal disease, 6.7%; PIOD, 13.0%; others, 24.4%). In the multivariate analysis, age ≥55 years and PTOD were associated with a high frequency of GD among patients with OD.
Conclusions: The current study show that GD is significantly associated with OD. In particular, GD is more common in patients with PTOD than in those with OD of other aetiologies.

Rhinology 60-3: 200-206, 2022

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