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Rhinology in review: from COVID-19 to biologicals

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W.J. Fokkens - B.N. Landis - C. Hopkins - S. Reitsma - A.R. Sedaghat

We look back at the end of what soon will be seen as an historic year, from COVID-19 to real-world introduction of biologicals influencing the life of our patients. This review describes the important findings in Rhinology over the past year. A large body of evidence now demonstrates loss of sense of smell to be one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection; a meta-analysis of 3563 patients found the mean prevalence of self-reported loss to be 47%. A number of studies have now shown long-term reduced loss of smell and parosmia. Given the high numbers of people affected by COVID-19, even with the best reported recovery rates, a significant number worldwide will be left with severe olfactory dysfunction. The most prevalent causes for olfactory dysfunction, besides COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections in general, are trauma and CRSwNP. For these CRSwNP patients a bright future seems to be starting with the development of treatment with biologics.
This year the Nobel prize in Medicine 2021 was awarded jointly to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch which has greatly enhanced our understanding of nasal hyperreactivity and understanding of intranasal trigeminal function. Finally, a new definition of chronic rhinitis has been proposed in the last year and we have seen many papers emphasizing the importance of endotyping patients in chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis in order to optimise treatment effect.

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