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Systematic endoscopic assessment of bleeding sites in severe epistaxis: the role of the S-point and the superior epistaxis

Volume: - Issue:

Firstpage: 0 - Lastpage: 0

C.N. Loures - T.C. Castro - G.R. Luz-Matsumoto - V.S. Siebert - L.S. Lacerda - M.V. Miranda - M.S. Tepedino - L. Balsalobre - A.C. Stamm - E.M. Kosugi

BACKGROUND: Systematic endoscopic assessment (SEA) of bleeding sites is critical for topodiagnosis and treatment of severe epistaxis, which is not limited to the posterior region. A bleeding site originating from the ethmoidal vasculature, the S-point, has recently been described. The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of each bleeding site in severe epistaxis using a SEA protocol that includes the S-point.
METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study of 51 severe epistaxis patients who underwent 53 SEA under general anesthesia from April 2018 through March 2019. SEA consisted of use of a rigid nasal endoscope; no reduction in blood pressure; no use of topical vasoconstrictor; systematic search of all regions of the nose. Bleeding sites were assigned to either superior or posterior epistaxis.
RESULTS: At least one bleeding site was identified in 37 evaluations (69.8%). The S-point was the most common bleeding site (28.3%), followed by the lateral middle turbinate (9.4%), non-S-point upper septum (7.5%), nasal roof (7.5%), and upper lateral wall (7.5%). Superior epistaxis was identified in the most of cases (27 SEA, 50.9%), whereas only 14 SEA (26.4%) identified posterior epistaxis – fewer than the 16 SEA that did not identify any bleeding sites (30.2%). There were two recurrences (3.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: Systematic endoscopic assessment effectively identified bleeding sites in 69.8% of severe epistaxis. The S-point was the most common bleeding site identified (28.3%). Finally, superior epistaxis corresponded to more than half of the identified bleeding sites, demonstrating the importance of examining this region judiciously in patients with severe epistaxis.

C.N. Loures - T.C. Castro - G.R. Luz-Matsumoto - V.S. Siebert - L.S. Lacerda - M.V. Miranda - M.S. Tepedino - L. Balsalobre - A.C. Stamm - E.M. Kosugi - Systematic endoscopic assessment of bleeding sites in severe epistaxis: the role of the S-point and the superior epistaxis
Rhinology -: 0-0, 0000