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Deposition of drugs in the nose and sinuses with an exhalation delivery system vs conventional nasal spray or high-volume irrigation in Draf II/III post-surgical anatomy

Volume: 58 - Issue: 2

Firstpage: 175 - Lastpage: 183

P.G. Djupesland - J.C. Messina - J.N. Palmer

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery is often performed to improve delivery of topical medication into sinus cavities. Intranasal steroids are guideline recommended in post-surgical patients, and experiments with cadavers suggest that surgery improves delivery of drug into sinuses. Exhalation delivery systems (EDS) use a new mechanism for intranasal delivery and have been shown to reach superior/posterior regions of the nasal cavity better than nasal sprays in unoperated patients.
METHODS: Silicone casts of the nasal cavity and sinuses from a patient after Draf II, and then Draf III, were made from high-resolution computed tomography (CT) data using 3D printing. Internal surfaces were coated with liquid-sensitive, color-changing gel. Color changes were evaluated following conventional nasal spray delivery (0.1 mL × 2) (Nasonex®), EDS delivery (0.1 mL × 2) (XHANCE™), and high-volume, low-flow (HVLF) delivery (≈80 mL) with head tilted either 45° or 90°.
RESULTS: Conventional nasal spray deposited liquid only in anterior nasal segments. EDS deposited liquid throughout the nasal cavity, in surgically opened ethmoid and maxillary spaces, at entrances of the frontal sinuses in Draf II geometry, and into frontal sinuses in Draf III. Tilted 45°, HVLF delivery enters the maxillary sinuses but not the frontal sinuses or the ethmoid region. At full 90° inclination, HVLF delivery reaches most of the frontal and maxillary sinuses but not the roof and posterior wall of the ethmoid region.
CONCLUSIONS: HVLF and EDS produced a deep intranasal/intrasinal deposition in the silicone cast compared with conventional nasal spray delivery; both deposited liquid inside the surgically opened sinuses. HVLF offers the benefit of lavage, whereas EDS may be more efficient and convenient.

P.G. Djupesland - J.C. Messina - J.N. Palmer - Deposition of drugs in the nose and sinuses with an exhalation delivery system vs conventional nasal spray or high-volume irrigation in Draf II/III post-surgical anatomy
Rhinology 58-2: 175-183, 2020