Bleeding control in endoscopic sinus surgery: a systematic review of the literature
Volume: 51 - Issue: 4
Firstpage: 298 - Lastpage: 305
A. Rodríguez Valiente - A. Roldán Fidalgo - D. Laguna Ortega
In the literature various methods are described to reduce bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery. Scientific evidence and results were gathered and analysed to determine the effectiveness of the various methods used. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two retrospective articles studied the differences between local and general anaesthesia. Three articles analysed the use of local methods to control bleeding. The majority of the articles analysed the use of different systemic drugs to control intraoperative bleeding.
Certain procedures, such as the reverse Trendelenburg position, the use of high doses of epinephrine, the infiltration of phenylephrine and lidocaine into the pterygopalatine fossa, the preoperative use of prednisone, and the control of the heart rate (with dexmedetomidine or remifentanil), appear to reduce the intraoperative blood loss and/or improve the visualisation of the surgical field. However, the evidence supporting these conclusions is poor. The benefits of other procedures, such as the preoperative use of β-blockers, antihypertensive agents, and surgical pledgets with oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, or cocaine, for bleeding control are not evidenced in the literature. In addition, the literature does not present any evidence on the benefits of local anaesthesia compared with general anaesthesia or the use of propofol compared to inhaled analgesics in terms of intraoperative bleeding or complication rates.
A. Rodríguez Valiente - A. Roldán Fidalgo - D. Laguna Ortega - Bleeding control in endoscopic sinus surgery: a systematic review of the literature
Rhinology 51-4: 298-305, 2013